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What is Evaporative Cooling System?

The principle underlying evaporative cooling is the fact that water must have heat applied to it to change from a liquid to a vapor. When evaporation occurs, this heat is taken from the water that remains in the liquid state, resulting in a cooler liquid.
Evaporative cooling systems use the same principle as perspiration to provide cooling for machinery and buildings. A cooling tower is a heat-rejection device, which discharges warm air from the cooling tower to the atmosphere through the cooling of water. In the HVAC industry, the term “cooling tower” is used to describe both open- and closed-circuit heat-rejection equipment.
In an HVAC system, heat is generated by the sun shining on the building, the computers, and people. The heat is picked up in the air handlers which are indirectly tied to the refrigerant through several heat exchangers. The heat boils the refrigerant from a liquid to a vapor. Cooling Tower water is circulated through a heat exchanger where refrigerant vapor is condensed and heat is transferred to the water. The purpose of the cooling towers is to cool the warm water returning from the heat exchanger so it can be reused. In the open cooling tower, the warm return water from the heat exchanger is sprayed over the “fill”. The fill provides the surface area to enhance the heat transfer between the water and air, causing a portion of the water to evaporate. That cool water then loops back to the beginning of the process, to absorb more heat from the heat exchanger.